What is Tactical Emergency Casualty Care ?

In 2011, the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC) published guidelines of care for law enforcement and EMS, based on the successful US Military’s Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) program, adapted for high threat incidents in a civilian setting.  C-TECC recognized that the civilian environment could benefit from the same simple skills applied in mass casualty incidents, where injuries are similar to those sustained on the battlefield.

 

Adding “Tactical” to the title of these skills is not a marketing ploy or just to sound “tacti-cool.”  C-TECC defines “Tactical” as “of or pertaining to a maneuver or plan of action designed as an expedient toward gaining a desired  end or temporary advantage.”

 

These skills and techniques are a structured plan of action with one goal in mind, to save lives from traumatic injuries before advanced medical care can be provided.

What are the principles of TECC ?

The guidelines of Tactical Emergency Casualty Care define three distinct phases of care during emergency medical responses, whether terrorist, intentional, accidental, or disaster related mass casualty accidents. 

 

These three phases are:

 

   Direct Threat Care – A current active threat exists, goal is

                                 neutralization of threat and rapid care

                                 of immediate life-threatening injuries.

   Indirect Threat Care – Threat may be near, or situation is

                                     unstable, goal is swift assessment

                                     and management of life-threatening

                                     injuries in preparation for transport

                                     to a trauma hospital.

   Evacuation Care – Threat is neutralized or contained, goal

                              is rapid transport to a trauma hospital.

 

According to TECC, injuries are assessed, treated, and managed using the MARCHe acronym:

 

   M   –   Massive Hemorrhage

   A   –   Airway

   R   –   Respirations

   C   –   Circulation

   H   –   Hypothermia / Head Injury

   e    –   Everything else

Are these skills complicated ?

The skills of TECC are simple. 

     - Stop rapid, severe bleeding using tourniquets and

       hemostatic gauze.

     - Open and keep the airway open using manual

       techniques and proper victim positioning.

     - Manage lung compromise from penetrating wounds

       using chest seals.

     - Treat lesser bleeding using pressure bandages.

     - Prevent hypothermia by keeping the victim insulated

       and warm.

     - Manage head injuries by assessing mental status and

       using proper victim positioning.

The tools of TECC are simple.

     - A quality commercial tourniquet

          - such as TacMed Solutions' SOF-T or North

            American Rescue's CAT tourniquets

     - Approved hemostatic gauze

           - such as MedTrade Products' Celox Rapid Gauze

             or Z-Medica's Quikclot Combat Gauze

     - Occlusive Chest seals

           - such as PMI's Halo Chest Seals, MedTrade

             Products' FoxSeal Chest Seals, or North American

             Rescue's Hyfin Chest Seals

     - All-in-one pressure bandages

           - such as TacMed Solutions' Olaes Modular Bandage

             or North American Rescue's Emergency Trauma

             Dressing

     - Emergency "Space" Radiant Heat Blanket

These skills are required for Law Enforcement  !

CAPOST and CAEMSA approved the use of tactical tourniquets, the application of hemostatic gauze, the use combat chest seals, and the use of trauma pressure bandages in April 2015, including these skills into the scope of practice for Law Enforcement Officers.  These skills became required, mandated skills for CA Law Enforcement in April 2017.